The smart-home developments are a part of the increasing digitization and can be classified un-der the heading ‘Internet of things (IoT)’. These developments fulfill the needs of the costumers like automate everyday tasks, enhance security, reduce energy and adjust device settings indi-vidually The current technologies allow not only the implementation of smart-home scenarios but can also be extended to smart buildings and smart cities. In this context, the connection between building information modeling (BIM) and IoT is important.
Björn Schuster, N+P Informationssysteme GmbH
Building owners, building operators, executing contractors (building construction, civil engineering), local authorities, towns, public area, maintenance service, manufacturer of technical systems, manufacturer of technical equipment with IoT functionalities
Partner from Research, Industry:
|N+P Informationssysteme GmbH||Industry||Dipl.-Ing. Björn Schuster|
|TU Dresden, Software technology||Research||Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Uwe Aßmann|
As the described within the demonstrators building information modeling provides extensive support in the daily work and the interaction with the local residents/tenant, including an intelligent building management. This may result in a better integration in construction projects, the reduction of votings, a faster provision of information or in simplified workflows. With regard to the use of the service, the direct savings by avoided service operations is directly quantifiable.
Building information modeling in the smart Building
All relevant details of the building are mapped and managed through the 3D representation of the individual building/building complexes/districts in the BIM model. The model contains, for example, all information regarding the building structure like the structure of floors, rooms and window lists as well as data of the technical building equipment, connected infrastructure and environmental data. The advantage of this way of working will start already in the planning process of construction. Through the possible interactive 3D display, e.g. in conjunction with virtual reality technologies, residents or future tenants can be involved in the process early and inform themselves about the impacts. In addition to the other benefits in the construction phases, advantages arise during the operational phase of buildings. Since two-thirds of the building’s lifecycle costs are incurred during this phase, the cost reduction has a very great importance. Therefore, for example a simple transfer of the constructional and technical documentation in the facility – and asset management system is possible. In addition to the decrease of information loss, multiple data entries are avoided. Furthermore, the system provides more accurate and detailed infor-mation about the building for analyses and evaluations in the facility and asset management system. Moreover, the 3D visualization allows an easier orientation in the district, effective communication and faster error detection. Based on the BIM models wind flow analysis, shading, traffic flows etc. can be calculated faster. The optimized effort estimation for rehabilitation and reconstruction through reuse of information is also on of the advantages of the BIM method.
Because of the 3D building model, it is possible to plan expansions or reconstructions in advance more precisely and to check for any restrictions on accessibility. Based on a BIM-FM-Integration, the planning and construction information from the BIM model are also available in the facility and asset management system after the initial import. In addition, new information regarding new constructions and rebuild updated automatically in the facility and asset management system. This avoids the multiple data collection and ensures the data quality, currency, and availability. This data can be used finally to manage the building. So, the structural information from the BIM-Model are the basis for the area and cleaning management. In a simple manner the assignment cost to buildings is made. The data to the technical equipment of buildings can be used for all topics related to the service and contract management, which includes the tasks of maintenance and inspection and repair.
In addition the FM process data can also be returned to the BIM model. Inside the BIM model you can generate a lot of reports or you can use the visualization possibilities of BIM-Viewers.
Furthermore, in the overall construct of the digital building, the structural information can be relat-ed to the environmental data. This has the advantage that, in the event of infrastructure failures, possible connections with other buildings in the district or the technical building equipment can be identified
Building and asset management in the spirit of IoT
Defects of the technical building equipment need not be reported by tenants. Thanks to an intelli-gent building control system (see Figure 1) the building assets are able to trigger an error mes-sage. In the event of a defect, a signal will automatically be sent indicating the problem. Parallel, the maintenance process is pushed, which ensures the disturbance and guarantees the trouble-free operation of the building.
Typical examples of such IoT scenarios are the failure of a elevator, street lighting or a failure in the block-type thermal power plant or air conditioning. Using intelligent sensors, the plant itself is able to report the defect and automatically push the process of the service and order management, to perform the notification processing and eliminating the malfunction. Ideally, the defect is resolved before the first residents realizes it.
Augmented reality (AR) to support the processes
Also in the smart city you can use augmented reality application. Employees, who are responsible for the maintenance or implementation of assets as well as of the technical equipment of the buildings, obtain additional information and support to the affected objects by using mobile devices. For example, the employee can get information regarding the lifecycle of the defect object. The lifecycle of the object proves that the same component has always been affected. On this basis, the employee receives a first clue and is faster in the examination. Instructions for the correction of the interference or the assembly instructions can be displayed at the same time. Furthermore, the employee has the opportunity to identify objects for which maintenance is pending or overdue, by using AR technology and a traffic light function.
Bi-directional integration of BIM and Facility and Asset Management
- Passing the building information including technical equipment in the Facility and Asset Management
- Transfer of maintenance or Facility and Asset Management attributes in the BIM model to display and filter based on such values
Smart reservation – meeting room prepared independently
- Context-dependent lighting and heating control, including adaptation to environ-mental factors, prior to the meeting and after the meeting
- Electronic door signs based on the reservation information of the Facility and Asset Management system
Smart energy controlling – intelligent room saves automatically energy
- Lighting and heating control in conference rooms, based on the reservation data in the Facility and Asset Management system
- Automatic regulation of the predefined room temperature in the Facility and Asset Management system using build-in sensors
Smart maintenance – technical systems report themselves
- Independent failure report of the technical systems by build-in sensors and control systems as well as automatic triggering of predefined process
Enrichment of Smart FM processes with visual information
- Display of information and interaction with augmented reality solutions (E.g. Microsoft HoloLens)
Currently, the two trail partners work on a joint innovation project with the name CyPhyMan (http://cyphyman.de). In the framework of this project the next generation of advanced facility and asset management system based on Cyber physical systems of production (CPPS) is specifically explored – a direct and innovative contribution to the industry 4.0. Another aspect of the project is to consider the new and complex challenges of working in the mobile context and moving towards smart buildings, smart factories and smart cities.
N + P customers as the company Goldbeck GmbH, Kommunale Immmobilien Jena or the Staatsbetrieb Sächsisches Immobilien and Baumanagement (SIB) work very successfully ac-cording to BIM specifications.
Opportunities for Projects and Funding Instruments:
Public funding instruments, such as:
Local services in industrial projects:
- Individual research and development projects
- Direct oders
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